Download E-books Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews 1430-1950 PDF

By Mark Mazower

Salonica, positioned in northern Greece, used to be lengthy a desirable crossroads city of alternative religions and ethnicities, the place Egyptian retailers, Spanish Jews, Orthodox Greeks, Sufi dervishes, and Albanian brigands all rubbed shoulders. Tensions occasionally flared, yet tolerance mostly prevailed until eventually the 20th century while the Greek military marched in, Muslims have been compelled out, and the Nazis deported and killed the Jews. because the acclaimed historian Mark Mazower follows the city’s population via plague, invasion, famine, and the disastrous 20th century, he resurrects a desirable and vanished international.

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Usually they took over present holy areas, saints’ tombs and Christian church buildings, a tradition which had began in Anatolia and persisted with the Ottoman improve into Europe. within the early 20th century, the intense younger British pupil Hasluck charted the handfuls of Bektashi foundations which nonetheless existed on the time of the Balkan Wars as some distance north as Budapest, such a lot of which (outside Albania, that is even at the present time an incredible centre) have lengthy seeing that disappeared. In such areas, humans got here, lit candles and fixed rags in within reach trees—a universal method of soliciting saintly suggestions. In Macedonia, the Evrenos family members supported the order; in Salonica itself, it owned numerous modestly appointed tekkes. 31 The Bektashi themselves had a detailed reference to the worship of Christ. Their use of bread and wine of their rituals, their rigidity at the twelve Imams (akin to the twelve apostles), and plenty of different gains in their rites all bore a detailed resemblance to Christian perform. In southern Albania, in response to Hasluck, legend claimed that Haji Bektash was once himself from a Christian family—he had switched over to Islam ahead of coming to acknowledge the prevalence of his unique religion, whereupon he invented Bektashism as a bridge among the 2. the inability of any foundation actually for the tale are not cover its symbolic fact. As one shut observer of the circulation defined: “It is their doctrine to be liberal in the direction of all professions and religions, and to contemplate all males as equivalent within the eyes of God. ”32 THE POWERS OF town underneath THE CONFESSIONAL divides and helped through such creeds, there existed a type of submerged renowned faith, outlined by means of universal trust within the situation and timing of divine strength. Take the calendar itself: even if less than their Christian or Muslim titles, Saint George’s Day within the spring and Saint Dimitrios’s Day on the finish of autumn marked key issues within the 12 months for enterprise and felony preparations affecting the full society, the dates for example whilst residential rentals expired, shepherds moved among lowland and upland pastures, and bread costs have been set through the neighborhood professionals. Salonica’s Casimiye Mosque, which had previously been Saint Dimitrios’s church, observed the cult of the city’s shopper saint carrying on with less than Muslim auspices. Casim himself was once an example—one of many within the Balkans—of these holy figures who have been Islamicized models of Christian saints, and Dimitrios’s tomb was once stored open for pilgrims of either faiths by means of the Mevlevi officers who sorted the mosque. close to the very finish of the empire, a French traveler stuck the ultimate moments of this association and defined the way it labored. He used to be ushered right into a darkish chapel by way of the hodja, including Greeks who had come for divine aid. This dialog undefined: “Your identify? ” requested the Turk … “Georgios,” answered the Greek, and the Turk, repeating “Georgios,” held the knot within the flame, then commented to the Greek with an air of delight that the knot had no longer burned. A moment time.

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